FoC Urban Change History

Urban success led to further societal developments. Firstly, prosperous urbanites wanted to protect their wealth and security, and started to enclose and fortify their settlements. Wall building defined cities in ways that are still visible today, either in the structures themselves, or in the road and grid patterns. Secondly, urbanites wanted to have control over their resources. Cities established themselves on either defensible (high) ground, or next to natural trading or free resources (rivers). Our major urban centres in the UK remain where they were founded over a thousand years ago. Thirdly, being part of a community allowed for central taxation and resource reallocation. This enabled common projects such as infrastructure delivery (e.g. the roman viaducts or Bazalgette’s sewer network), which improved public health and amenity.

Cushman & Wakefield | Client name


Cushman & Wakefield

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